Perpendiculous

2013.07.28

DOS 6 MBR breakdown

Filed under: Programming,Technology — cwright @ 7:28 pm

Recently I came across an old recovery disk for my parents’ old 486 from 1993 (the first machine I really seriously programmed — the Tandy before it got some QBasic time, but nothing as crazy as a C compiler. Some real mode assembly though once or twice). I managed to cobble things together to get it booting in VirtualBox (you see, in those days booting from CD didn’t exist, so the CD itself isn’t bootable, it just has a bunch of zips that were written to floppies by an operational system — getting that up and running is a post for another day, but it required hexediting the virtual harddrive to lay down IO.SYS and MSDOS.SYS properly in FAT16, whee).

Anyway, after it was up and running, I figured it might be fun to start tearing it apart (since the entire machine state fits in RAM (4MB RAM, 512MB harddrive, 527MB restore CD, a couple 1.4MB boot floppies) it’s easy to blow it away and restore it very rapidly.

So, let’s start from the beginning, the Master Boot Record. This the MBR laid down by DOS 6. Before this there’s the BIOS, but unfortunately I don’t have access to that (otherwise, it’d be a fun but much more complex piece of software to explore), and the MBR’s really tiny (just 512 bytes, of which only like 446 or so are executable code).

Here’s the Hex for a DOS 6 MBR on a ~512MB harddrive with just 1 “primary DOS partition”.
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55AA at the end indicates a “valid” boot sector (sort of). The long stream of zeros mid-way through starts the unused bit, and the stuff just before the end is the Partition Table (we’ll ignore that for now — look it up on wikipedia if you’re curious).

Let’s take a look at the non-zero bits at the beginning:

FA33C08ED0BC007C8BF45007501FFBFCBF0006B90001F2A5EA1D060000BEBE07
B304803C80740E803C00751C83C610FECB75EFCD188B148B4C028BEE83C610FE
CB741A803C0074F4BE8B06AC3C00740B56BB0700B40ECD105EEBF0EBFEBF0500
BB007CB8010257CD135F730C33C0CD134F75EDBEA306EBD3BEC206BFFE7D813D
55AA75C78BF5EA007C0000496E76616C696420706172746974696F6E20746162
6C65004572726F72206C6F6164696E67206F7065726174696E67207379737465
6D004D697373696E67206F7065726174696E672073797374656D00

(1 trailing zero byte left since it’s the end of a string which might be null terminated – we’ll see that next).

Let’s start by looking for strings.

$ hexdump -C dos6.mbr 
00000000  fa 33 c0 8e d0 bc 00 7c  8b f4 50 07 50 1f fb fc  |.3.....|..P.P...|
00000010  bf 00 06 b9 00 01 f2 a5  ea 1d 06 00 00 be be 07  |................|
00000020  b3 04 80 3c 80 74 0e 80  3c 00 75 1c 83 c6 10 fe  |...<.t..<.u.....|
00000030  cb 75 ef cd 18 8b 14 8b  4c 02 8b ee 83 c6 10 fe  |.u......L.......|
00000040  cb 74 1a 80 3c 00 74 f4  be 8b 06 ac 3c 00 74 0b  |.t..<.t.....<.t.|
00000050  56 bb 07 00 b4 0e cd 10  5e eb f0 eb fe bf 05 00  |V.......^.......|
00000060  bb 00 7c b8 01 02 57 cd  13 5f 73 0c 33 c0 cd 13  |..|...W.._s.3...|
00000070  4f 75 ed be a3 06 eb d3  be c2 06 bf fe 7d 81 3d  |Ou...........}.=|
00000080  55 aa 75 c7 8b f5 ea 00  7c 00 00 49 6e 76 61 6c  |U.u.....|..Inval|
00000090  69 64 20 70 61 72 74 69  74 69 6f 6e 20 74 61 62  |id partition tab|
000000a0  6c 65 00 45 72 72 6f 72  20 6c 6f 61 64 69 6e 67  |le.Error loading|
000000b0  20 6f 70 65 72 61 74 69  6e 67 20 73 79 73 74 65  | operating syste|
000000c0  6d 00 4d 69 73 73 69 6e  67 20 6f 70 65 72 61 74  |m.Missing operat|
000000d0  69 6e 67 20 73 79 73 74  65 6d 00 00 00 00 00 00  |ing system......|
000000e0  00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00  00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00  |................|
*
000001b0  00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00  00 00 00 00 00 00 80 01  |................|
000001c0  01 00 06 1f bf 07 3f 00  00 00 c1 fe 0f 00 00 00  |......?.........|
000001d0  00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00  00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00  |................|
*
000001f0  00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00  00 00 00 00 00 00 55 aa  |..............U.|

So we see a couple strings in there: “Invalid partition table” and “Error loading operating system” and “Missing operating system”. Those three cover about a third of the bytes. Now let’s look at the disassembly.

For reference, the first string starts at 0x8C (140) bytes, and after the strings it looks like it’s just zeros until the partition table, so we’ll focus our disassembly efforts on the first 0x8B (139) bytes. Also, the BIOS loads the MBR at 0x7C00, so we’ll tell the disassembler to pretend like the code is at that location in memory. It also starts in Real Mode (1MB addressable, segmented, no virtual memory, dark ages stuff). Here we go.

$ ndisasm -a -o 0x7c00 -k 0x7c8B,0x200 dos6.mbr
00007C00  FA                cli             ; clear interrupt flag (disable interrupts)
00007C01  33C0              xor ax,ax       ; ax = 0
00007C03  8ED0              mov ss,ax       ; ss = ax (0) (this is our stack "segment")
00007C05  BC007C            mov sp,0x7c00   ; sp = 0x7c00 (this is our stack - remember, it grows down)
00007C08  8BF4              mov si,sp       ; si = sp (0x7c00)
00007C0A  50                push ax         ; push ax (0) on the stack
00007C0B  07                pop es          ; pop es (this sets it to 0 because that's the last thing we pushed)
00007C0C  50                push ax         ; push ax (0) (again)
00007C0D  1F                pop ds          ; pop ds (same as es above)
00007C0E  FB                sti             ; set interrupt flag (enable interrupts)
00007C0F  FC                cld             ; clear direction flag (string operations work forward)
00007C10  BF0006            mov di,0x600    ; di = 0x600 (1536, or 1.5k)
00007C13  B90001            mov cx,0x100    ; cx = 0x100 (256)
00007C16  F2A5              repne movsw     ; memcpy si (0x7c00 above) to di, cx "words" (16 bit values).
00007C18  EA1D060000        jmp 0x0:0x61d   ; jump to 0x61d (cs = 0)
00007C1D  BEBE07            mov si,0x7be    ; record scratching
...

Ok, so just a few instructions in, we’ve got some basic but useful stuff going on. Initially it zeros out all the segment registers (ss, es, ds, and cs) because the BIOS could leave them weird, it sets up the stack at 0x7c00 (just under the MBR), and then it copies 256 words (512 bytes) from 0x7c00 to 0x600 (this copies the MBR from 0x7c00 to 0x600). Then we jump to 0x61d (notice how the next instruction is at address 0x7C1D — that’s 0x1D bytes after the beginning of the MBR. 0x61d is 0x1d bytes beyond the start of the copied MBR, so basically that jump jumps to the next instruction, but at a different location in memory). It’s common for MBRs to copy themselves elsewhere, and then load stuff at 0x7c00 (this is why they move themselves out of the way). So now let’s disassemble it again, but with the assembler thinking it’s at 0x600 (since that’s where the remainder of the code will be executing).

This time, there’s a lot of flow control, so I’ve interjected a lot of commentary in-line

$ ndisasm -a -o 0x600 -k 0x68B,0x200 dos6.mbr
[0x7c00 relocation code omitted for brevity]
00000618  EA1D060000        jmp 0x0:0x61d       ; (the jump to 0x61d from before)
0000061D  BEBE07            mov si,0x7be        ; (this is where we'd continue operating)  si = 0x7be
00000620  B304              mov bl,0x4          ; bl = 4 (maximum number of partitions)

; check partition
00000622  803C80            cmp byte [si],0x80  ; compare the byte at offset si with 0x80
; 0x7BE is 0x1BE bytes from the beginning of our relocated MBR -- our MBR is 0x200 bytes, so this is
; inside the MBR, as opposed to some random memory location.  0x1BE is the first byte of the first
; partition of our drive.  The first byte of the partition table is the status byte -- 0x00 means
; inactive, 0x80 means active.
00000625  740E              jz 0x635            ; if equal (first partition is active), jump to 0x635
; first partition wasn't active
00000627  803C00            cmp byte [si],0x0   ; is the partition status inactive?
0000062A  751C              jnz 0x648           ; it's not - it's an invalid value.  jump to 0x648
0000062C  83C610            add si,byte +0x10   ; advance to next partition structure (16 bytes)
0000062F  FECB              dec bl              ; decrement bl (partiton count)
00000631  75EF              jnz 0x622           ; as long as bl isn't 0 jump to check partition above
00000633  CD18              int 0x18            ; start BASIC interpreter, or reboot, or whatever

; first partition is active
00000635  8B14              mov dx,[si]         ; dx = partition status byte
00000637  8B4C02            mov cx,[si+0x2]     ; cx = partiton sector and cylinder start
0000063A  8BEE              mov bp,si           ; bp = start of partition structure

; check remaining partitions
0000063C  83C610            add si,byte +0x10   ; advance si by 16 (point to next partition structure)
0000063F  FECB              dec bl              ; decrement bl (partition count)
00000641  741A              jz 0x65d            ; jump to 0x65d once we've exhausted all partitions
00000643  803C00            cmp byte [si],0x0   ; is this partition not marked inactive?
00000646  74F4              jz 0x63c            ; if it is, jump above to check next partition

; if one of the remaining partitions is marked active or otherwise not set to 0 (inactive)
; we fall through to log an error message

; invalid partition status byte
00000648  BE8B06            mov si,0x68b      ; si = offset of "Invalid partition table"
; top of string printing loop
0000064B  AC                lodsb             ; load a string byte to al
0000064C  3C00              cmp al,0x0        ; end of string?
0000064E  740B              jz 0x65b          ; if so, jump to infinite loop
00000650  56                push si           ; save si
00000651  BB0700            mov bx,0x7        ; color 0x7 (grey text, black background)
00000654  B40E              mov ah,0xe        ; print character function (0xE)
00000656  CD10              int 0x10          ; INT 0x10, Function 0xE , color 0x7
00000658  5E                pop si            ; restore si
00000659  EBF0              jmp short 0x64b   ; jump to top of string printing loop
; infinite loop
0000065B  EBFE              jmp short 0x65b

; partition table is well-formed (exactly 1 active partition)
0000065D  BF0500            mov di,0x5        ; di = 5 (retries)
; read start of partition
00000660  BB007C            mov bx,0x7c00     ; destination = 0x7c00
00000663  B80102            mov ax,0x201      ; read sectors (0x200), 1 sector (0x1)
00000666  57                push di           ; save di
00000667  CD13              int 0x13          ; read sectors (AH = 0x2)
00000669  5F                pop di            ; restore di
0000066A  730C              jnc 0x678         ; on no error jump to final checks
0000066C  33C0              xor ax,ax         ; ax = 0
0000066E  CD13              int 0x13          ; reset disks
00000670  4F                dec di            ; decrement tries
00000671  75ED              jnz 0x660         ; try again if there are tries left
; exhausted all retries
00000673  BEA306            mov si,0x6a3      ; "Error loading operating system" string
00000676  EBD3              jmp short 0x64b   ; jump to string printing loop

; final checks
00000678  BEC206            mov si,0x6c2         ; "Missing operating system" string
0000067B  BFFE7D            mov di,0x7dfe        ; address of last 
0000067E  813D55AA          cmp word [di],0xaa55 ; is the last word the partition signature?
00000682  75C7              jnz 0x64b            ; if not, jump to string printing loop
00000684  8BF5              mov si,bp            ; 
00000686  EA007C0000        jmp 0x0:0x7c00       ; jump to loaded bytes!

So there we have it. 139 bytes of code, and it relocates itself to 0x600, checks the partition table, if it’s good it loads the first sector of the active partition to 0x7c00, and then jumps to it, otherwise it prints error messages. It has some retries and some sanity checks, but otherwise it’s pretty straightforward. Next time we’ll check out the sector it loads and see what that does.

2012.05.19

hand holding

Filed under: Meta,Personal — cwright @ 10:50 pm

Lately, Alias has been teaching our daughter how to hold our hand when we walk places. This is a relatively new experience for her, since she’s accustomed to us carrying her, putting her in a stroller, or leaving her to her own self-directed devices. Nevertheless, she’s picked the skill up well, and basically performs admirably. (more…)

2011.12.21

page tables and you

Filed under: Uncategorized — cwright @ 11:44 pm

Any comp-sci grad worth his or her student loan debt can tell you about virtual memory. And many can tell you the intricacies of dealing with unix-style VM. But for the developers working with Mac OS X (and iOS), there’s a deeper layer hidden underneath that is seldom expressed (and often for good reason) – Mach. (more…)

2011.01.06

MMX (and not the ISA)

Filed under: Meta,Personal — cwright @ 11:10 pm

MMX was an instruction set added by Intel to its processor lineup in the mid 1990’s.  It was marketed as a parallelization technology (it wasn’t) that would accelerate your games (it didn’t).  Offering an integer-only instruction set to a world that had largely moved on to floating point wasn’t particularly interesting or useful (though it did have a few fun applications), but that didn’t stop me from writing about it a long long time ago here.  I won’t be elaborating further on that.  Instead, I’d much rather go over the other MMX, also known as 2010.

(more…)

2010.08.12

Ghost in the shell

Filed under: Meta,Personal — cwright @ 3:47 am

I was planning on some really cool technical junk for tonight’s post, but midway through the day I caught word of a friend’s death. (more…)

2010.07.31

Cache is King -or- Things are about to get MESI

Filed under: Programming — cwright @ 11:24 pm

A few days ago I was chatting with some friends, and the topic of caching came up. I mentioned MESI, which is the basis for modern multicore cache coherence (There are variants like MOESI and MERSI, but the general idea is the same).  It then occurred to me that I’ve never actually made a test to see the effects of MESI in action. (more…)

2010.06.28

NX in action

Filed under: Programming — cwright @ 1:49 am

NX, or the No eXecute bit, is an interesting technology that prevents instructions on the stack from getting executed.  The reason for this is security (stack smashing becomes a bit more difficult for a would-be attacker), and the implications are typically few and far between. (more…)

2010.05.11

past trends

Filed under: Uncategorized — cwright @ 12:09 am

Visualizing the badness of purchasing a new car. (more…)

2010.02.08

First Week -or- The Craziest Story Ever Told

Filed under: Meta,Personal — cwright @ 1:12 am

I’ve been chilling in my new Cupertino apartment for about 3 days now.  Jet Lag still makes me wake up between 5 and 6am local time, but strangely allows me to stay up till midnight.  When I need to go somewhere, I walk, and until Alisa gets here next week, I likely won’t have much in the way of amenities.  Not that I’m in dire need, mind you — it’s just not a priority at the moment. (more…)

2009.10.14

Reality Distortion Field Deflector (RDFD)

Filed under: Uncategorized — cwright @ 6:17 pm

Mid last month (September, for those keeping score at home), a peculiar email arrived in my inbox.  Therein, I was referred by an Apple employee with an opportunity to potentially work there.  To say the least, my interest was piqued.  After all, after spending the past 2 years up to my elbows in some of their software’s guts, reverse engineering, patching, and exploring, I’d like to think I had some authority on the subject.

(more…)

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